Sortition is the process of choosing public representative by lottery rather than by ballot.
While sortition might seems like a strange way to choose the people who govern us, it actually makes a lot of sense.
1. Election promises
Because elections are a popularity contest, getting elected means making promises, most of which are discarded after the candidate and their party is elected. This is hugely frustrating for voters, and undermines the credibility of the political system.
In Sortition, no promises are required, as every candidate has the same chance of being elected as every other candidate.
2. Political parties
Political parties are an essential feature of any democratic system based on elections. To provide the electorate with relevant choices, politicians need to be organised in groups that can campaign during the electoral campaign. This organisation is also required in the parliament, when one group of politicians governs and another provides opposition to whatever the group of governing politicians do and says. Parliamentary organisation is also needed to ensure that individual parliamentarians act in line with party policy, rather than according to their own views or beliefs, to underpin the stability of the sitting government.
There are certain advantages to this, but political parties are also breeding grounds for corruption. Membership of a party provides a conduit to those other members who govern, and decisions taken in this regard are invisible to the general public.
In Sortition, there is no need for such organisation. There are no elections, so no organisation around that activity is required. In parliament, members are free to vote how they choose, as they consequences of a vote being defeated does not undermine the Government, as the Government is chosen from all members of the parliament, rather than the political party with the most seats.
No political system can guarantee against corruption. If an individual is given power, there will always be another individual willing to pay them to use that power by proxy.
Democracy based on elections is particularly prone to corruption, because money is almost essential to political success. Democracy also encourages corrupt people to seek election, because success can be achieved with money. Democracy allows people who want power most to obtain power, when in fact those are the people who should never be in power.
A public representative who obtains power via a lottery system would still be exposed to corrupt influence, but the incentive to be corrupt is greatly reduced. Money confers no advantage on public representatives appointed via Sortition, so there is nothing to be gained politically from taking money to act in a particular way.
4. Fairer and more diverse representation
Because of the nature of electoral politics, the people who are elected tend to come from a restricted subset of demographics, income brackets and professions.
Wealthier people tend to fair better. People who have been involved in trade unions tend to fair better. People in professional occupations (solicitors, doctors, accountants) tend to fair better. Teachers (who have time off during election campaigns) tend to fair better.
Conversely, mothers tend not to participate. People from low-income backgrounds tend not to participate. People in 9-to-5 jobs tend not to participate. Farmers tend not to participate. In fact, a huge portion of the average population is generally excluded from representation.
In Sortition, none of this true. Anyone who wants to can add their name to the list of eligible candidates. No campaigning or money is required, and mothers, people on low incomes, 9-to-5ers and farmers are just as likely to be made members of parliament as anybody else.
Clientelism describes the phenomenon where elected public representatives act as advocates for their constituents who are faced with personal issues. This is a particular problem in multi-seat constituencies, where each politician competes with every other politician to see who can provide the best “service”.
This is not why we elect public representatives. We elect public representatives to consider evidence pertaining to national issues and make decisions based on that evidence. The ability of a public representative to do this effectively is greatly curtailed if they have spend half their time in their local area dealing with issues that should be dealt with by local agencies.
In Sortition, this problem doesn’t exist. The is no competition, so public representatives can focus entirely on national issues.
6. Electoral fraud / manipulation
In a democratic system based on elections, significant resources have to be deployed to protect against fraud. Agencies have to be established to monitor spending, to ensure balance in the media, to ensure that polling stations are secure, to ensure that votes are counted correctly, to ensure that the electoral register is valid and accurate, to ensure that only people who are entitled to vote can vote. This costs a lot of money, and fraud and manipulation still occur.
In Sortition, the system is simple. People who want to be considered put their name on a list. All the names go into a “hat”, and a fixed number are drawn. The process takes no more than an hour, and once it is done in public, is virtually incorruptible.
7. Universal participation in the legislative process
In typical democratic systems based on elections, legislation is drafted by the government and passed by a majority of the government representatives in the parliament. Members of the parliament who are not members of the governing party suggest changes to the legislation, some sensible, some just to get their name in the papers, but these changes are almost universally ignored, as conceding to such changes is seen as an admission by the government party that the other parties have sensible things to say, which is then used by those parties when the next election comes around.
This means that a very large number of public representatives in a parliament have no input into legislation for the 4 to 5 years they spend in the parliament.
This isn’t a feature of Sortition. There is no government party, and no elections, so public representatives who put forward legislation can accept changes and improvement to legislation without having to worry about how this makes them look or how it impact on their electoral prospects.
8. Political geography
In order for voters to feel like their local areas are getting a fair deal in the distribution of resources, decisions around public spending are often made on the basis of electoral impact rather than actual need. This leads to systems that are disjointed and poorly planned, in which valuable resources are wasted.
In Sortition, there are no elections, so public representatives can consider decisions entirely on what matters, leading to more efficient systems that can be planned with a long term perspective.
9. Politicians Pay
Because democracy is essentially a popularity contest, its a lot easier to succeed when you have money. The more football kits you sponsor, the more rounds you buy in the pub, the more donations you give to charity, the more ads you put in the paper etc etc the more popular you are amongst voters. That puts people who have less money, who are generally the people who need most representation, at a disadvantage. To re-balance this situation, elected politicians are paid well, to remove the temptation for them to obtain money from people who would seek to influence the way they act (ie corruption).
In Sortition, there is no competition. Everybody has the same chance of becoming a public representative as everybody else, so money is no advantage. It therefore isn’t necessary to pay politicians well.
10. Early pensions
Attracting capable people into politics is difficult. It takes a lot of work to build up your profile to the point where you can win an election, and even if you do get elected, you could lose your position within a couple of years, often through no fault of your own.
People who have built up careers in particular professions or who are self-employed are reluctant to sacrifice that to enter politics. Someone who spends 10-15 years as an elected representative is unlikely to be able to pick up where they left off after they leave politics.
To remove this disincentive, politicians are paid their pension earlier than people in normal careers.
In Sortition, a person chosen by lottery to be an elected representative would only serve a single term of 5 years. They would not have to sacrifice any more of their career than that, and their position would be secure during that 5 years. It would therefore not be necessary to pay them an early pension.